# Statistics (2011/2012)

Course code
4S00121
Credits
9
Coordinator
Annamaria Guolo
Other available courses
Other available courses
SECS-S/01 - STATISTICS
Language of instruction
Italian
Teaching is organised as follows:
Activity Credits Period Academic staff Timetable
lezione 7 First semester Annamaria Guolo
esercitazione 2 First semester Annamaria Guolo

### Learning outcomes

The course is intended to provide an introduction to Descriptive Statistics, Probability and Inferential Statistics. The course is for students
in Economic and Business Sciences. Prerequisite to the course is the mastering of a few basic mathematical concepts such as limit, derivative and integration at the level of an undergraduate first year introductory course in calculus. The statistical techniques that will be illustrate in the course are intended to provide instruments useful for description and interpretation of collective data. From a practical point of view, methods are necessary for interpreting official statistics and for realizing statistical studies of economical and social phenomena. The course is also intended to provide instruments for a critical analysis of the methodology.

### Syllabus

a) Descriptive Statistics

Introduction; data collection; population, sample, statistical unit; survey; questionnaire; data classification; data types; statistical sources.
Statistical data; matrix data; types of frequency distributions; graphical representations.
Cumulative frequency; cumulative distribution function.
Measures of central tendency; arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean; properties of the arithmetic mean; quadratic and cubic mean; mood; median; quartiles and percentiles.
Variability and measures of dispersion; variance and standard deviation; coefficient of variation.
Moments; indices of skewness and kurtosis.
Fixed and varying base indices; Laspayres and Paasche indices.
Double and multivariate distributions; frequency tables; covariance; variance of the sum of more variables; conditional distributions; conditional mean and variance;
scatterplots; covariance; variance of the sum of more variables; chi-squared index of dependence; index of association C.
Least squares metodo; scatterplot; least-squares regression line; Pearson’s coefficient of linear correlation r; Cauchy-Schwarz inequality; R-square coefficiente; regression and residual deviance.

b) Probability

Deterministic and probabilistic models; events, probability spaces and event trees.
Combinatorics.
Definition and probability; probability function; theorems; conditional probability; independence; Bayes' theorem.
Discrete and continuous random variables; distribution function; expectation and variance; Markov and Tchebycheff inequalities; discrete uniform distribution; Bernoulli distribution; binomial distribution; Poisson distribution; continuous uniform distribution; normal distribution;multivariate discrete random variables; joint probability distribution; marginal and conditional probability distributions; independence; expectation and covariance; correlation coefficient; conditional expectation and variance.
Linear combinations of random variables; average of random variables; sum of independent normals.
Weak law of large numbers.
Central limit theorem.

c) Inferential Statistics

Introduction; sample and sampling variability; sample statistics and sampling distributions.
Point estimates and estimators; unbiasedness; efficiency; consistency; estimate of the mean, of a proportion and of a variance.
Confidence intervals; intervals for a mean, for a proportion (large samples) and for a variance.
Hypothesis testing; first- and second-type errors and power of a test; one and two tails tests for a mean, for a proportion (large samples) and for a variance; hypothesis testing for differences in two means, two proportions (large samples) and two variances.

Book

- G. CICCHITELLI (2008), Statistica: principi e metodi, Pearson Education, Milano.

Additional material will be distributed by the teacher

Other books

- D. PICCOLO (1998), Statistica, Seconda edizione 2000. Il Mulino, Bologna.
- D. PICCOLO (2010), Statistica per le decisioni, Nuova edizione. Il Mulino, Bologna.
- D. OLIVIERI (2003), Temi svolti di statistica, Seconda edizione aggiornata al 2002. Cedam, Padova.
- D. OLIVIERI (2005), Istituzioni di statistica. Cedam, Padova.
– D. OLIVIERI (2007), Fondamenti di statistica, Terza edizione. Cedam, Padova.
- E. BATTISTINI (2004), Probabilità e statistica: un approccio interattivo con Excel. McGraw-Hill, Milano.
- S. BERNSTEIN, R. BERNSTEIN (2003), Statistica descrittiva, Collana Schaum's, numero 109. McGraw-Hill, Milano.
- S. BERNSTEIN, R. BERNSTEIN (2003), Calcolo delle probabilita', Collana Schaum's, numero 110. McGraw-Hill, Milano.
- S. BERNSTEIN, R. BERNSTEIN (2003), Statistica inferenziale, Collana Schaum's, numero 111. McGraw-Hill, Milano.
- F. P. BORAZZO, P. PERCHINUNNO (2007), Analisi statistiche con Excel. Pearson, Education.
- M. R. MIDDLETON (2004), Analisi statistica con Excel. Apogeo.

The course consists of a series of lectures (56 hours) and of twelve exercise classes (24 hours). All classes are essential to a proper understanding of the topics of the course. The working language is Italian.

The exercise lessons are necessary to better understand the course. The material which will be used during the exercise lessons will be made available online.

### Assessment methods and criteria

The course is considered completed if the candidate has passed both the two written tests. Students must receive at least 15 out of 30 in both written tests.

 Activity Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note lezione M. R. Middleton Analisi statistica con Excel Apogeo, Milano 2004 lezione F. P. Borazzo, P. Perchinunno Analisi statistiche con Excel Pearson, Education 2007 lezione S. Bernstein, R. Bernstein Calcolo delle Probabilita', Collana Schaum's, numero 110. McGraw-Hill, Milano 2003 lezione D. OLIVIERI Fondamenti di statistica (Edizione 3) Cedam, Padova 2007 lezione D. OLIVIERI Istituzioni di statistica CEDAM 2005 lezione E. Battistini Probabilità e statistica: un approccio interattivo con Excel McGraw-Hill, Milano 2004 lezione D. Piccolo Statistica Il Mulino 2000 8815075968 lezione S. Bernstein, R. Bernstein Statistica descrittiva, Collana Schaum's, numero 109 McGraw-Hill, Milano 2003 lezione S. Bernstein, R. Bernstein Statistica inferenziale, Collana Schaum's, numero 111. McGraw-Hill, Milano 2003 lezione D. Piccolo Statistica per le decisioni Il Mulino 2004 8815097708 lezione G. Cicchitelli Statistica: principi e metodi (Edizione 2) Pearson Italia, Milano 2012 Libro di testo lezione D. OLIVIERI Temi svolti di statistica (2001-2007) Cedam, Padova 2008

#### Statistics about transparency requirements (Attuazione Art. 2 del D.M. 31/10/2007, n. 544)

 Outcomes Exams Outcomes Percentages Average Standard Deviation Positive 34.95% 23 2 Rejected 27.43% Absent 21.23% Ritirati 16.37% Canceled --
 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 30 e Lode 12.6% 5.0% 12.6% 8.8% 7.5% 15.1% 12.6% 8.8% 6.3% 3.7% 2.5% 3.7% 0.0% 0.0%

Data from AA 2011/2012 based on 226 students. I valori in percentuale sono arrotondati al numero intero più vicino.